Reminiscence on the Happiness of Retired Elderly People in Department Of Education in Mashhad in 2018

Maryam AhmadiManesh, Mitra AhmadiManesh, Reza SaeediAbuIshaqi, Morad Rostami


The aging process is associated with physical, psychological and social changes and this causes the elderly to lose their happiness and vitality. Since the reduction of happiness is one of the consequences of old age, this study was conducted with the aim of the effect of reminiscence on the happiness of retired elderly. This is a quasi-experimental study that was conducted in the fall of 2018. Samples were 90 retired men over 60 years of education retired. Sampling was done by available method, samples were randomly assigned to intervention and control groups. Reminiscences were performed for six group sessions twice a week for the intervention group at the Mashhad Education Retirement Center. Data collection tools were personal information form and Oxford Happiness Questionnaire. Data analysis was performed using descriptive and inferential statistics by SPSS software version 21. The mean happiness score of the elderly in the intervention group increased from 48.82 ± 3.51 before reminiscence to 56.51 ± 6.14 after. And in the control group it changed from 47.66 ± 6.99 before reminiscence to 49.68 ± 7.96 after. The mean score of happiness after Guider memory was significantly different between the intervention and control groups (p <0.001). This study showed that group reminiscence can promote happiness in the elderly. Because reminiscence is an attractive, simple, and inexpensive intervention, it can be used to reduce anxiety in the elderly. It is suggested that this intervention be used in nursing homes to create a fun atmosphere.

Full Text:



Alipoor, ahmad, & Noorbala, ahmad ali. (1999). A preliminary evaluation of the validity and reliability of the Oxford happiness questionnaire in students in the universities of Tehran. Iranian Journal of Psychiatry and Clinical Psychology, 5(1), 55-66.

Almasi, M, Mahmoudiani, S, & Jafari, M. (2015). Factors associated with feelings of happiness among the elderly. Iran Journal of Nursing, 27(92), 23-32.

Argyle, Michael, Martin, Maryanne, & Crossland, Jill. (1989). Happiness as a function of personality and social encounters. Recent advances in social psychology: An international perspective, 189-203.

Bakhtiyari, Fariborz, Foroughan, Mahshid, Fakhrzadeh, Hossein, Nazari, Neda, Najafi, Baharak, Alizadeh, Mahtab, . . . Mostafa, Qorbani. (2014). Validation of the persian version of Abbreviated Mental Test (AMT) in elderly residents of Kahrizak charity foundation. Iranian journal of Diabetes and Metabolism, 13(6), 487-494.

Changizi, Fereshteh, & Panahali, Amir. (2016). Effectiveness of Group Narrative Therapy on Life Expectancy and Happiness of the Elderly in Tabriz. Journal of Instruction and Evaluation, 9(34), 63-76.

Chiang, Kai‐Jo, Chu, Hsin, Chang, Hsiu‐Ju, Chung, Min‐Huey, Chen, Chung‐Hua, Chiou, Hung‐Yi, & Chou, Kuei‐Ru. (2010). The effects of reminiscence therapy on psychological well‐being, depression, and loneliness among the institutionalized aged. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry: A journal of the psychiatry of late life and allied sciences, 25(4), 380-388.

Elias, Sharifah Munirah Syed, Neville, Christine, & Scott, Theresa. (2015). The effectiveness of group reminiscence therapy for loneliness, anxiety and depression in older adults in long-term care: a systematic review. Geriatric Nursing, 36(5), 372-380.

Fakari, Farzaneh Rashidi, Hashemi, Mozhgan Azimi, & Fakari, Fahimeh Rashidi. (2013). A Qualitative research: Postmenopausal women's experiences of abuse. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 82, 57-60.

Hosseini, Farnosh-asadat, Khodabakhshi-koolaee, Anahita, & Taghvaee, Davoo. (2016). Effectiveness of group film therapy on happiness and quality of life among elderly adults of Kahrizak nursing home. Journal of Health Literacy, 1(2), 109-117.

Huang, Hui-Chuan, Chen, Yu-Ting, Chen, Pin-Yuan, Hu, Sophia Huey-Lan, Liu, Fang, Kuo, Ying-Ling, & Chiu, Hsiao-Yean. (2015). Reminiscence therapy improves cognitive functions and reduces depressive symptoms in elderly people with dementia: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Journal of the American Medical Directors Association, 16(12), 1087-1094.

Keshavarz-Afshar, Hossein, Jahan-Bakhshi, Zahra, Anisi, Jafar, Azad-Marzabadi, Esfandiar, & Ghahvehchi-Hosseini, Fahimeh. (2016). The Determination of Mental Health among Military Retired Forces based on Organizational and Humanistic Variables. Journal of Military Medicine, 18(2), 191-196.

Musavi, Motahareh, Mohammadian, Sara, & Mohammadinezhad, Bahar. (2017). The effect of group integrative reminiscence therapy on mental health among older women living in Iranian nursing homes. Nursing open, 4(4), 303-309.

Nori pourlayavali, Roghayeh, Alikhani, Mostsfa, Hoseynian, Simin, Soheylizadeh, Samira, & Mohammadifar, Mohammadali. (2016). The Effect of Group Reminiscence on Happiness and Life Expectancy of Elderly. Aging Psychology, 1(3), 147-156.

Rahnejat, AM, Dabagi, P, Rabiei, M, Taghva, A, Valipoor, H, Donyavi, V, & Ebrahimi, MR. (2017). Prevalence of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Caused by War in Veterans. Iranian Journal of War and Public Health, 9(1), 15-23.

Shallcross, Rebekah, Dickson, Joanne M, Nunns, David, Taylor, Kate, & Kiemle, Gundi. (2019). Women’s experiences of vulvodynia: An interpretative phenomenological analysis of the journey toward diagnosis. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 48(3), 961-974.

Song, Dan, Shen, Qin, Xu, Tu-Zhen, & Sun, Qiu-Hua. (2014). Effects of group reminiscence on elderly depression: A meta-analysis. International Journal of Nursing Sciences, 1(4), 416-422.

Tarugu, Jayanthi, Pavithra, R, Vinothchandar, Sivagami, Basu, Aniruddha, Chaudhuri, Sirshendu, & John, KR. (2019). Effectiveness of structured group reminiscence therapy in decreasing the feelings of loneliness, depressive symptoms and anxiety among inmates of a residential home for the elderly in Chittoor district. International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health, 6(2), 847.

Yazdanbakhsh, Kamran. (2016). Effects of life review on social adjustment of retirees' elderly persons. Aging Psychology, 1(3), 179-185.

Yen, Hsin-Yen, & Lin, Li-Jung. (2018). A systematic review of reminiscence therapy for older adults in Taiwan. Journal of Nursing Research, 26(2), 138-150.

Yousefi, Zahra, Sharifi, Khadijeh, Tagharrobi, Zahra, & Akbari, Hossein. (2014). The effect of group reminiscence on happiness of the elderly. Evidence Based Care, 4(3), 33-46.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

© World of Researchers Publication, Iranian Journal of Positive Psychology