Criminological theory on crime prevention

Mohammad Javad Izak Shiri


Crime is a social phenomenon that cannot be avoided, according to Emile Durkheim. Even in a society of saints, there will still be crime, although the crimes committed would be different. For instance, something as simple as praying before eating may be considered a crime in such a society. The prevention of crime is crucial since it can have harmful and destructive effects on both the society and the victim when violent crimes are committed against people's physical integrity. Classical and realist criminology sought to prevent crime by focusing on the character of the criminal, emphasizing punishment, and taking preventive and corrective measures. However, this approach tended to ignore the role of the victim in the criminal scene, leading to the failure of offender-oriented criminology. Criminologists have now shifted their attention to the victim and other intervening factors like time, physical environment, human or active caregivers and protectors such as parents, neighbors, teachers, and friends, and non-human or passive protectors such as electronic security systems. To be successful in crime prevention, criminologists and theorists need to adopt a holistic view and take a bird's eye view, considering all the factors involved. Therefore, it is no longer a secret that crime prevention requires a multi-dimensional approach that goes beyond just focusing on the offender and the victim.

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